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Romanian Flora and Vegetation Section
Emplacement and area
Presenting approximately 22 ha area, "Romanian flora and vegetation"
is the largest section of the "A. Fatu" Botanic Garden.
It is divided in six sub-sections:
Moldova: the principal representatives of forests
and grasslands vegetal formations illustrate the vegetation characteristic
to this province. Thus, the forests edified by Quercus pedunculiflora
and Quercus pubescens (downy oak) presenting Paeonia
peregrina (Romanian wild peony) in the herbaceous layer are
characterizing the plains and low hillocks vegetation. The mixed
forests (Quercetum robori - petraeae) edified by Quercus
robur (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (sessile
oak) or Fagus sylvatica (Galio schultesii - Fagetum)
are specific to Moldavian Plateau. The mixed mountain forests edified
by Fagus sylvatica (beech) and Abies alba (silver
fir) - Pulmonario rubrae - Fagetum, and pure mountain forests
edified by Picea abies (spruce fir) - Hieracio transsilvanici
- Piceetum, can be admired in the superior part of the versant.
Some specimens of Pinus mugo (Swiss mountain pine) and
Pinus cembra (arolla pine) suggesting the sub-alpine mountain
level are cultivated in the northern part of the subsection. The
grasslands combine fragments of spontaneous vegetation (existing
before the garden organization) with cultivated fragments including
bunches of Cerasus fruticosa (dwarf cherry), Amygdalus
nana (dwarf almond) or Caragana frutex var. mollis
(Russian peashrub). Reduced areas present some coastal saline terrains
where Artemisia santonica, Limonium gmelinii etc.
Transylvania: illustrated by Quercus cerris
(Turkey oak) and Quercus frainetto (Hungarian oak) forests;
also the characteristic herbaceous flora and, at their border, some
bunches of Syringa josikaea (Transylvanian lilac) are present.
Other vegetation associations that can be admired are: the Querco
robori - Carpinetum [mixed Quercus robur (pedunculate
oak) and Carpinus betulus (common horn beam) forests] and
Carpino - Fagetum [mixed Carpinus betulus (common
horn beam) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) forests]
separated by a large clearing of Hieracio transsilvanici - Piceetum
(pure Picea abies forests) and a Larix decidua
ssp. carpatica group. An artificial peat bog allows the
cultivation of some rare species: Salix rosmarinifolia
(rosemary leaved willow), Angelica palustris etc.
Banat: is represented by a semi-natural elevation
covered in calcareous rocks reproducing a miniature image of the
Domogled Mountain, where characteristic species are cultivated:
Pinus nigra ssp. banatica (Banat pine), Corylus
colurna (Turkish hazelnut), Syringa vulgaris (lilac),
Acer monspessulanum (Montpellier maple), various Sorbus
species (Sorbus dacica, Sorbus borbasii),
iris species (Iris variegata), Chamaecytisus ratisbonensis
etc. Under the protective shield of the forest have been acclimated
Ruscus aculeatus (butcher's broom), Ruscus hypoglossum,
Ficus carica (fig tree) etc.
Muntenia: illustrated by the characteristic
forests formations: deciduous forests edified by Quercus robur
(pedunculate oak), Quercus petraea (sessile oak), Fagus
sylvatica (European beech) and coniferous forests edified by
Pinus sylvestris (scots pine), mixed Picea abies
(spruce) and Betula pendula (silver birch) forests etc.
Oltenia: represented by mixed Quercus cerris
(turkey oak) and Quercus frainetto (Hungarian oak) forests
presenting Helleborus odorus and Tamus communis
(black bryony) in the herbaceous layer. In the superior part of
the versant, mixed groups of Syringa vulgaris (lilac),
Carpinus orientalis (oriental hornbeam) and Fraxinus
ornus (manna ash) presents other aspects of the vegetation
from this province.
Dobrogea: includes elements characteristic to
the aquatic and marshy vegetation from Danube Delta (schematic represented
by the three branches of the Vineyards rivulet): Phragmites australis
(reed) Typha angustifolia (narrowleaf cattail) and Typha
latifolia (broadleaf cattail) groups. Specific to deltaic forests
are the Populus alba (white poplar) groups, Fraxinus
pallisiae (hairy ash) and Fraxinus angustifolia (narrow-leaved
ash) groups where Periploca graeca (silk-vine) and Vitis
sylvestris lianas are growing. Western pontic forests are represented
by Quercus dalechampii (Balkan oak), Quercus polycarpa,
Fraxinus ornus (manna ash) and Tilia tomentosa
(silver lime) groups. Thorny shrubs formed by Paliurus spina-Christi
(Christ's prickle), Jasminum fruticans (yellow jasmine),
Berberis vulgaris (common barberry) and Crataegus monogyna
(oneseed hawthorn) are giving a particular note to this landscape.
In the center of the Romanian Flora and Vegetation
section there is an artificial lake having a 2,1 ha area where numerous
hydrophilous and hygrophilous species are growing (Nuphar lutea).
Also, this section benefits by 100 m2 of pre-cultivars where
the botanic material is obtained from seeds. As a suggestive example
can be presented especially the rare, endemic or endangered taxa: Astragalus
roemeri, Dianthus spiculifolius, Allium obliquum,
Cerastium transsilvanicum etc.
The main organization principle is the representation
on the vertical of the main types and zones of vegetation from our
country (favored by the natural relief) and, on the horizontal,
the flora and vegetation of each Romanian historical province. Another
organization principle is that of ex-situ conservation of a vegetal
genetic fond as varied as possible from our country flora.